Comparing and Contrasting a Biblical Christian Worldview with Islam

“Comparing and Contrasting a Biblical Christian Worldview with Islam”

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CENTURION EDUCATION FOUNDATION

by

Dr. Andrew T. Knight

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Is Islam really a peaceful religion?

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Andrew Thomas Knight

DMIN Luther Rice Seminary, 2014

MABA Clarks Summit University, 2018

MRE West Coast Baptist College, 2010

MBS Emmanuel Baptist Theological Seminary, 2004

BB Pensacola Christian College, 1994

May 2, 2017

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION………………………………….……………………… 1

The Beginning of Islam and of Christianity………..………….……….. 2

Islam’s Beginning………….……………..……………….……………… 2

Christianity’s Beginning…………………………………………………. 5

The Quran and the Bible…………………………..……..……………….. 8

The Quran…………….………………….……………………..………. 8

The Bibe……………………………..…………………………………. 10

Islam’s Belief vs. Biblical Salvation………….……………………….. 11

Islam’s Beliefs….………..…………………………………………….. 11

Biblical Salvation……………………………………………………… 13

CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………. 15

INITIAL SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………….. 16

INTRODUCTION

One may ask why are there so many religions in the World? Are they all the same? The

next most obvious question is: If they are not, than which one is the right one? Andrew

Wormmack stated it this way, “The difference between religion and Christianity is, basically,

that religion is man’s attempt to reach God, and Jesus is God reaching out to man. All the

religions of the world fall short of obtaining salvation because they put the burden of salvation

on man.”[1] One may also ask, if Jesus is the only way to God, first, how was man separated from

God; and, why was man separated from God? How the separation from God came about is as

follows: Genesis 3:6 “And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was

pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and

did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.” Because of Eve’s being

deceived and Adam’s intentionally choosing to sin against God the human race was separated

from the presents of God.

This study will look at the beginning of Islam, and the fulfilled prophecy of the Messiah,

Jesus Christ. A stark comparison and contrast of Islam and biblical salvation though faith in

Christ will be made. A comparison and contrast will be made between the Quran and the Holy

Bible will be presented. The Islamist quest for World domination and Christ’s offer of

redemption will be considered.

The Beginning of Islam and of Christianity

Islam’s beginning

Mohammad had learned about the Jewish people and the Christians while he was in his

mid-twenties. He came to some delusional conclusions that has hunted the Jews and Christians

since the seventh century. S.M. Houghton elaborated,

In trading be became still better acquainted with Jews and Christians and his own fellow-countrymen, and formed the conviction that a new religion was needed. He thought much on the unity of God and conceived the idea that he was a messenger of God, who had to warn his people that they could only escape condemnation by giving up their idols and turning to the worship of the one supreme God whom he knew as Allah.[2]

This was the first world religion conceived and started by one man’s pride and satanically

driven admission for World domination. One thing that Mohammad does not seem to do was to

explain how God the Father and God the Son created the World 4175 B.C., Genesis 1:1 “In the

beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” Mohammad was born in 570 A.D. The God of

the Bible gave the first three commandments not to have other gods. Exodus 20:2-4 “I am the

LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or

any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the

water under the earth:” The Lord stated this as strongly as possible not to serve any false gods.

Mohammad’s incorrect understanding of God the Father and God the Son, two of the

three Godheads, his denial of the virgin birth of Christ and His bodily resurrection were all the

seeds of this false and damming new religion. Houghton addressed this,

“He gave his new religion the name Islam, which means ‘obedience’ or ‘surrender.’ He acknowledged that Moses and Jesus were prophets, but claimed that he, Mohomad, was the greatest prophet of all. He said that Jesus was a holy man, but denied that he was the Son of God, for, he argued, God being one, could not have a Son. He also denied the virgin birth of Christ, His resurrection and ascension. Never has the Christian faith had a greater enemy than Mohammad.”[3]

There are at least three doctoral areas of denial of biblical Christianity. First, was the

denial of the Trinity. John shows that Jesus was part of the Trinity, and is divine. John 1:1 “In the

beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” Also in John

10:29 “I and my Father are one.” And the clearest passage in Scripture relative to the Trinity is

found in I John 5:7 “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the

Holy Ghost: and these three are one.”

Secondly, was the denial of the virgin birth of Christ. To deny the virgin birth of Christ,

one must flatly deny that Christ was Deity. The denial must continue to deny God the Father,

deny the Holy Spirit, and all the other documented miracles. Lastly, one must deny the

authenticity of the Scriptures. Matthew 1:18 “Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise:

When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found

with child of the Holy Ghost.” This writer likes to say, ‘denial is not a river in Egypt,’ but this

seems to have been the case with Mohamad. Wayne Grudem developed his apologetic for the

virgin birth in this manner:

The doctrinal importance of the virgin birth is seen in at least three areas. (1.) It shows that salvation ultimately must come from the Lord. Just as God had promised that the ‘seed’ of the woman (Gen. 3:15) would ultimately destroy the serpent, so God brought it about by his own power, not through mere human effort. The virgin birth of Christ is an unmistakable reminder that salvation can never come through human effort, but must be the work of God in Himself; (2.) The virgin birth made possible the uniting of full deity and full humanity in one person. This was the means God used to send His Son (John 3:16; Gal. 4:4) into the World as a man; (3.) The virgin birth also makes possible Christ’s true humanity without inherited sin…But the fact that Jesus did not have a human father means that the line of descent from Adam is partially interrupted. Jesus did not descend from Adam in exactly the same way in which every other human being has descended from Adam.[4]

Mohammad seems to have been an apostle of denial relative to the deity of Christ, His

virgin birth, which is central to Christ’s deity, the Resurrection, the authenticity of Scripture, and

the doctrine of soteriology. The third fatal doctrinal error which Mohammad made was by

denying the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Charles Ryrie discussed the proofs of the resurrection:

“His appearances after the Resurrection. The number and variety of people in a variety of

circumstances who saw the Lord after His Resurrection gave overwhelming proof of the fact that

He did rise from the dead.”[5] The most overwhelming proof was seen in the more than 514 eye

witnesses to Christ post resurrection ministry. I Corinthians 15:3-6 “For I delivered unto you first

of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;

And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: And that

he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred

brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.”

Ryrie continued, “Effects which must have a cause (the Resurrection). Some astonishing facts

must be explained. It is inconceivable to think they could have a satisfactory explanation other

than being caused by the Resurrection of Christ. What caused the empty tomb?”[6] Since the

resurrection is an historical event, and that Jesus had forty days of post resurrection ministry

prior to His ascension back to Heaven there were hundreds of individual witnesses and

documentation of these events.

This new religion, Islam, has proved to be strictly a ‘works salvation,’ which of course is

no salvation. Houghton discussed, “The new religion taught that everything which occurs has

been fore-ordained by an absolute fate, and that after death the evil will be punished and the

good rewarded. Islam knows nothing of salvation by the sheer unmerited grace of God.”[7] In

opposition to the ‘works salvation’ is ‘salvation by grace alone,’ Ephesians 2:8,9 “For by grace

are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any

man should boast.”

Christianity’s beginning

The beginning of Christianity began long before Islam was every, literally, dreamt up. In

fact, to understand the beginning of Christianity one must go all the way back to the prophecies

that foretold the coming Messiah, which began in Genesis 3:15 “And I will put enmity between

thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt

bruise his heel.” Adam Clarke explained this verse like this, “Therefore the address is not to

Adam and Eve, but to Eve alone; and it was in consequence of this purpose of God that Jesus

Christ was born of a virgin; this, and this alone, is what is implied in the promise of the seed of

the woman bruising the head of the serpent. Jesus Christ died to put away sin by the sacrifice of

Himself, and to destroy Him who had the power of death, that is, the devil.”[8] This was the first

prophetic verse in the Bible, and one that foretold the coming Messiah. Because the Old

Testament has sixty-three recorded prophecies that have been fulfilled with absolute accuracy

they are the handmaid which has carried the workload giving proof Christ was and is the

Messiah. King David wrote under inspiration of the Holy Spirit the prophetic passage, Psalm 22

“My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? why art thou so far from helping me, and from

the words of my roaring?” which was written one thousand years before Christ’s crucifixion.

Than 693 years prior to Golgotha Isaiah wrote in Isaiah 53:9-11 “And he made his grave with the

wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit

in his mouth. Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt

make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure

of the LORD shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be

satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their

iniquities.” The fulfillment of these passages is astonishing, but would be more astonishing,

based on these prophetic passages, is to deny the virgin birth, the crucifixion, or the bodily

Resurrection of Jesus Christ.

The gospels cover the earthly life and ministry of Christ, and the gospels also reveal

many of the fulfilled prophecies. It could be said, every prophecy has a mate. One of those

fulfilled prophecies is the bloodline in which Christ was born, which is the line of David,

Matthew 1:1 “The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.”

And the generations conclude, Matthew 1:16-18 “And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary,

of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. So all the generations from Abraham to David are

fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen

generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations. Now

the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph,

before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost.”

The beginning of the New Testament church movement began with a forerunner named, John the

Baptist. Matthew 3:1-6

“In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea, And saying, Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. And the same John had his raiment of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey. Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan, And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins.”

The New Testament local church movement differentiated herself from the Old

Testament keeping of the Law. As John the Baptist gave his simple message to, ‘Repent,’ and

follow the Lord in a public display of identifying with the Lord through immersionist baptism.

Thomas Strounse explained the implementation of the church,

The Book of Acts records the practical implementation of the Great Commission. As Christ commanded His followers to implement the Great Commission, they were obedient and followed His command. The result was predictable. Since the Great Commission was the mandate to establish NT immersionist assemblies, the apostles and disciples went from the Jerusalem church and established NT assemblies throughout Palestine, Galatia, Greece and Italy, and subsequently wrote Epistles to them. The NT ekklesia, Christ’s My Church, is the new means through which the Lord will accomplish His work in this age. No longer would He use a theocracy or state-religion (sacral society), but His plan is the NT assembly in a pluralistic society.[9]

As Strouse suggests, that though the New Testament church model was a large transition

from the Old Testament to the New Testament believers followed the New Testament plan to

accomplish the Lord’s work in and through local, New Testament churches. The Book of Acts

records an unprecedented response to God’s plan of salvation, by His grace, though faith in Jesus

Christ. Acts 2:41-42 “Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day

there were added unto them about three thousand souls. And they continued stedfastly in the

apostles’ doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.” The spread of the

gospel was heard in every corner of Jerusalem, and the city largely received the new message of

salvation and this first New Testament church in Jerusalem grew to 35,000 members. Acts 4:4

“Howbeit many of them which heard the word believed; and the number of the men was about

five thousand.” The rise of Christianity in the First Century was profound, the influence and the

changed lives, and the culture were just as profound. Since the First Century, Christians have

sent missionaries around the globe, opened churches, schools, Bible colleges, seminaries, sent

relief, and defended Israel.

The Quran and the Bible

The Quran

When one begins to read the Quran one of the first characteristic of the writing is that the

reader is trying to be convinced of something. In fact the nature of the writing seems to have an

appeal of Aristotle’s philosophy of persuasion. The Quran states in 9:111, “Allah has indeed

purchased from the believers their persons and their possessions. Theirs, in return, is the

(Heavenly) Garden; they fight in the cause of Allah, so they slay and are slain, an unfailing

promise (that he has made) binding upon himself (as mentioned) in the Torah and the Evangel

and the Qur’an. And who is the more faithful and true to his covenant than Allah? (Believers!)

Rejoice over the bargain you have made with him and this indeed is a great achievement.”

Observations of the Quran passage are quite stark relative to the Bible. First, the use of

persuasion was a surprise, as it is just not authoritative. The approach to biblical apologetics,

which certainly is an argument, (but this writer is not the Lord or Author of the Bible), is that the

Lord God simply declares Himself to mankind, Genesis 1:1a “In the beginning God…” God

does not sell Himself. He does not negotiate with man. He does not tout His great offer to the

World. He simply declares Himself to the World.

The second observation: Mohammad begins this passage telling the reader what a great

deal he has gotten to go and fight and be slain for Allah. Contrasted with the God of the Bible

stating from His heart, John 3:16 “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten

Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” The contrast is

that Mohammad asks his followers to die for their spokesmen, Allah, while God the Father

declares His love for the World that He was willing to send His Son to give His live for the

eternal souls of the whole world.

Thirdly, the surprising statements made by Mohammad as he was actually contrasting the

Quran with the Old Testament and with the Christians. God simply declares that He is the Deity,

and He has no peers. Exodus 20:2-3 “I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of

the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” One

should understand that if a Deity is truly a Deity, the Deity does not need to be compared to other

world religions. Again, this writer is not a deity, but rather a benefactor of the grace of God.

The fourth observation was the kind of lawyerly language used in the Quran while

addressing the reader. Again this language seemed to be very Aristotle like. The text of the

Quran stated that this offer of paradise was binding if one would be willing to give up their life

in conquest on behalf of Allah. On the contrary, the Lord God’s offer of salvation to all that

believe in Him is open to all without Jihad. Romans 10:13 “For whosoever shall call upon the

name of the Lord shall be saved.” This offer is free of payment or sacrifice in order to obtain

eternal life. Ephesians 2:8-9 “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves:

it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast.” An analysis to this passage of the

Quran seems to lead to the conclusion that Islam is a exploitation of its followers, and certainly

not a peaceful religion, but rather as a political, militaristic, and a massive economic enterprise

designed to deceive, enslave, and pillage the world.

The Bible

The narrative of the Bible is quite remarkable by itself, yet the positive impact that the

Bible has had in this world has been even more astounding. One reason the Bible has had the

positive impact in the world that it has is because of the nature of the Bible. Part of the Bible’s

nature is that it is authoritative from the Lord Jesus Christ. The Bible is without error or

contradiction. The Bible is also authoritative as it is a preserved text. On the contrary the major

problem with the Quran is that it is not authoritative, (which is to say, it is not from God), as the

Quran breaks the law of non-contradiction, and thus the authoritativeness is non-existent.

The preservation of the Bible text gives great reliability and authoritativeness. Psalm 12:

6-7 “The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven

times. Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever.”

Thus, if truth is truth it will always be truth. This means that since the Bible has been found to be

reliable, one can consider that this truth always was and always will be truth. Thomas Strouse

explained how (Psalm 119:89 “For ever, O LORD, thy word is settled in heaven.)” gives a

reason where and how the Bible is preserved. He stated,

Scripture uses the idiom le’olam to refer an indefinite period of time, both past and future. For instance, ‘for ever’ refers to David’s lifetime (1 Samuel 27:12), to everlasting life (Genesis 3:22), to the eternal nature of God (Genesis 21:33), to temporal indefiniteness (Genesis 49:26), and to the indefinite ancient past (Ecclesiastes 1:10). In this context the psalmist referred to the eternal nature of the word (davar) of God, since it is an extension of the Lord God and maintains His qualities of eternal existence. God and His words are permanent, stable, imperishable, and infinite (cf. 1 Peter 1:23-25).[10]

The eternality of nature and character of Christ is in fact the same nature and character of

the Bible, which is to say the authoritativeness and reliability of the text are above reproach. Said

differently, if one were able to discredit the Bible one could than reasonably discredit all of

Christianity. The same could be said for the Resurrection. If the Resurrection could be disproved

all the other foundations of Christianity would crumble. On the contrary all attacks and all

theories to discredit the Bible and the Resurrection have failed. The Resurrection is not only the

most documented event in history, the documentation are ever increasing. John 21:24-25 “This is

the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his

testimony is true. And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should

be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should

be written. Amen.” With documentation comes more credibility and trustworthiness.

Islam Beliefs vs. Biblical Salvation

Islam’s Beliefs

As one analyses, some of the language structure of the Quran it is immediately clear that

this message is transactional in its nature. One might even go so far as to say that this writing

appears to be contractional in nature. For example, If one does such and so they be protected

from evil and will prosper. The first reference to mention from the Quran relative to their stated

salvation, 91:9 “(All these are cited to witness that) one who purifies it (-his soul), certainly

succeeds,” This would seem to be a works-salvation, which is to say, one must DO something in

order that one might become acceptable to their stated deity. The next passage discusses the

follower of Allah in terms of righteousness. 19:72 “And (let Us tell you another thing,) We shall

save those who guard against evil and are righteous. We shall leave only the wrong doing person

therein (the Hell) fallen on their knees.” The first clause of this passage suggests that their

suggested deity if forgetful. It is amazing however for those that cut off the heads of Christians

are warning against wrong doing, and encouraging righteousness. Ones Worldview does

dramatically affect ones ethics. Consider how Christians are to treat unbelievers. Romans 12:17-

21 “Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men. If it be

possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. Dearly beloved, avenge not

yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay,

saith the Lord. Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so

doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with

good. “

This passage demonstrates the law of non-contradiction, and destroys any possibility of

authoritativeness, 39:53 “Say, ‘O My servants who have committed excesses against their own

souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allah. Surely, Allah forgives all sins. Verily, he is the great

protector, the ever merciful.” The inspiration for followers of worldwide terrorism on innocent

men, women and children does not square with one who claims to ‘forgive all sins.’ The

inconsistencies and contradictions in each of these passages from the Quran are glaring. Much of

Jesus’ earthly ministry He preached, not only to convert souls, but to convert people’s

worldview, which would include the world’s economy verses heaven’s economy. Matthew 6:33

“But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added

unto you.” The fruit of the Islamicist’ was warned about in Genesis 16:12 “And he will be a

wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall

dwell in the presence of all his brethren.”

Biblical Salvation

There are three major pillars of biblical salvation are as follows: (1) Eternal live is

unmerited, (2) He gave His life for humanity, (3) Jesus Christ is accepted on a personal basis.

The first principle, is unmerited favor from the Creator and Saviour of the World. Ephesians

2:8-9 “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

Not of works, lest any man should boast.” One must always ask, if they could save themselves

they should have been on the cross themselves, and Jesus should not have been. Titus 3:5 “Not

by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the

washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;” The qualification for propitiation is

sinlessness. II John 2:2 “And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for

the sins of the whole world.” And Jesus met this standard of being without sin. II Corinthian 5:21

“For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the

righteousness of God in him.”

Believers in God do not give their lives for their sins, rather God has provided a Saviour,

the Lord Jesus Christ who died for the sins of the World. Genesis 3:15 “And I will put enmity

between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and

thou shalt bruise his heel.” This was the promised Messiah who God the Father foretold would

be sent to die for the sins of the World. John 3:16-17 “For God so loved the world, that he gave

his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting

life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through

him might be saved.”

This leads to the third principle, the provision was made for all humanity if one would

just repent and receive Christ as their personal Saviour. Personal acceptance of Jesus Christ as

their personal Saviour is foundational to Christianity. John 1:12 “But as many as received him, to

them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:” Jesus

desires a personal relationship with humanity, and His arms are open. Romans 10:13 “For

whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.” Eternal security is part of His

provision for humanity. I John 5:11-13 “And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal

life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God

hath not life. These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God;

that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of

God.” These three pillars of Christianity are unique among other World religions. Unlike Islam,

which is a works based religion; Christianity is having a personal relationship with God, by grace

though faith in Jesus Christ.

CONCLUSION

This study briefly looked the life of Mohammad, and at the beginning of Islam and its

worldview. This worldview was contrasted with the beginning of Christianity. The study also

took a brief look and the worldview of Christianity and the First Century local church movement.

The major criticisms and denials by Mohammad of the tenants of the Christian faith were

considered. Responses from Scripture were offered as the authoritative faith and worldview. The

presuppositional proofs offered relative to the virgin birth and the Resurrection of Jesus Christ

were based on fulfilled prophecy, reliability of the Bible text, eye witnesses of Christ post

resurrection ministry, and a large amount of reliable documentation of the Resurrection of Jesus

Christ. This study reviewed several passages from the Quran, and commentary was offered to

contrasting it with biblical passages. This writer also offered some of his own analysis of the

Quran, relative to its lack of reliability and lack of its authoritativeness. An analysis of the

history of the Bible was offered. Special attention was given to the preservation of the text and

its reliability. The nature and character of Christ was discussed in relationship to the Word of

God. The final Worldview was a contrast relative between Islamic beliefs and biblical salvation.

An analysis of the Islamic belief system was offered as a works salvation, which of course is no

salvation. Three major tenants of biblical Christianity were offered as the authoritative and only

way of salvation and path to eternal life in heaven. Scripture was offered for the biblical

worldview for salvation and eternal security in and through Christ.

INITIAL SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPGY

Clarke, Adam. Clarkes Commentary, vol. 1. Genesis to Deuteronomy. New York: Abingdon Press, 1923.

Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1994.

Houghton, S.M. Sketches From Church History: An Illustrated Account of Twenty Centuries of Christ’s Power. Carlisle, PA, 1980.

Ryrie, Charles C. Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to Understanding Biblical Truth. Wheaton, Il: Victor Books, 1982.

Strouse, Thomas M. An Exegesis of Psalm 119. Newington, CT: Emmanuel Baptist Theological Press, 2008.

Strouse, Thomas M. I Will Build My Church: The Biblical Basis and Heritage of Baptist Churches. Newington, CT: Emmanuel Baptist Theological Press, 2001.

The Holy Bible. King James Version.

The Quran.

Internet Sources

Wommack, Andrew. “What is A Christian?,” Andrew Wommack Ministries. http://www.awmi.net/reading/teaching-articles/what_christian/ (accessed April 27, 2017).

  1. Andrew Wommack, “What is A Christian?,” Andrew Wommack Ministries. http://www.awmi.net/reading/teaching-articles/what_christian/ (accessed April 27, 2017).
  2. S.M. Houghton, Sketches From Church History: An Illustrated Account of Twenty Centuries of Christ’s Power (Carlisle, PA, 1980), 34-35.
  3. Ibid., 35.
  4. Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1994), 529-530.
  5. Charles C. Ryrie, Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to Understanding Biblical Truth, (Wheaton, Il: Victor Books, 1982), 267.
  6. Ibid., Ryrie, 268.
  7. Ibid., Houghton, 36.
  8. Adam Clarke, Clarkes Commentary, vol. 1. Genesis to Deuteronomy (New York: Abingdon Press, 1923), 53.
  9. Thomas M. Strouse, I Will Build My Church: The Biblical Basis and Heritage of Baptist Churches (Newington, CT: Emmanuel Baptist Theological Press, 2001), 43.
  10. Thomas M. Strouse, An Exegesis of Psalm 119 Newington, CT: Emmanuel Baptist Press, 2008), 138-39.

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